Commonly used datasets:
There are some resources by Xun Pang, who heads Tsinghua’s new Tsinghua International Relations Data & Computing Lab (DCL).
The International Crisis Behavior (ICB) Version 11 datasets are now available! With the addition of 15 crises between 2008 and 2013, the ICB data now covers 1918 to 2013. This consists of 470 crises and 1,036 crisis actors.
The China Biographical Database is a freely accessible relational database with biographical information about approximately 370,000 individuals as of April 2017, primarily from the 7th through 19th centuries. With both online and offline versions, the data is meant to be useful for statistical, social network, and spatial analysis as well as serving as a kind of biographical reference. The image below shows the spatial distribution of a cross dynastic subset of 190,000 people in CBDB by basic affiliations (籍貫).
The Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) launched in 2003, is the earliest national representative continuous survey project run by an academic institution in China mainland. CGSS is aimed to systematically monitor the changing relationship between social structure and quality of life in both urban and rural China. Social structure refers to dimensions of social group and organization as well as networks of social relationships. Quality of life is the objective and subjective aspects of the people well-being both at the individual and aggregate levels.
A conflict-year dataset with information on armed conflicts where at least one party is the government of a state in the time period 1946-2016. This would be the most widely used datasets in the study of civil war.
The ESOC publishes and compiles high quality sub-national data on civil war from Cold War conflict in Vietnam to contemporary conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq; from Latin America to the Middle East.
There are many free R tutorials online, Datacamp is one example.
Stata is another data analysis software that is easy to use but it is not free.
Tableau is an easy to use data visualization/GIS tool, this public version is free.
Pew Research Centre (Pew) conducts a wide range of surveys on U.S., and international issues. Their data is directly downloadable from the site.
American National Election Studies (ANES) provide some of the most comprehensive and high-quality survey data on US citizens.
Asian Barometer Survey (ABS) is very useful survey data in East and Southeast Asia. Just send them an application file and they will give you the data!